Every parent wants his child was smart, read a lot and studied well at school, happily engaged and became an educated man. So many want to start teaching the kid at an early age. And here in front of parents raises many questions: where to start? how and what to do? at what age should education begin? to do it themselves at home or drive a child to school early development? what methods exist and which one to choose for your favorite crumbs?
Early development is the training and education of the child from birth to 6 years. The fact that a child is born with great potential, his brain is actively working, are established and strengthened communication between nerve cells, it absorbs all information like a sponge. Children begin learning immediately after birth. Ambient sounds, tactile sensations, visual images — all this is the first lesson in the life of a newborn. With each passing day the baby gets more and more information.
Psychologists say that in the first six years of life the child receives more information than in all subsequent years! Nature has arranged everything in such a way that in this period the child learns, remembers a lot of words, able to absorb a huge amount of knowledge. But, alas, not always. The development of the brain, which actively occurs in childhood, is decreasing with time. And if a year-old child easily perceives the foreign speech, easily learns new words (even passively, still unable to use them independently), and to five years is already well possessed spoken language, then the adult to learn a foreign language is much more difficult. But in order for the brain to fully develop, it requires constant work. In principle, this applies to all of our body. Imagine what would happen if we for a long time we just lay around and do nothing. Correctly, the muscles of the body weaken and stop working. And the brain, if it won’t work, its development will go very slowly. And that’s why learning in the first years of life should be given special attention.
This training should be diversified and harmonious development. For many parents, the early development is the ability of a child to be able to read and count. It is not so. Early development involves getting the child the basic concepts about the world, and physical training and exercises, and development of creative abilities and self-help skills, and much more from a very early age.
To engage in the development of the baby can not only home. Today to help parents created many schools of early development. They work with various methods and programs which are developed by teachers, doctors, psychologists and other professionals. Many perfected and improved for many years. In these schools qualified teachers who have studied these techniques and have experience in working with kids (which is especially important for young mothers whose first child) and most of them have pedagogical education. Schools are equipped with educational material (clay, frames Montessori, natural material, different types of letters and numbers, tables, and more), many have additional sports facilities (sports complexes, swimming pools, athletic track, dry basins, etc.), and some are also musical classes for little ones. So, of course, schools of early development are wonderful helpers in the child’s learning.
In schools early development usually there are several groups, each of which solves the age problem and is working on a special program. They are formed according to age or depending on activity. So, for example, classes can be:
0 to 6 months;
from 5 to 10 months;
from 9 months to 1.5 years.
As a rule, each group has its own age limits. In this simple answer when to start and where to go. A parental decision, considering the individual characteristics of the child’s desire to attend classes and doctors ‘ recommendations.
Classes in schools early development are different in time and in duration, there are also groups of the day. If you have the opportunity to choose the best occupations suit the morning. It was at this time the child is full of strength and energy, and therefore better perceive new information. If the baby is less than 3 years, you need to engage not more than 2-3 times a week for 40-60 minutes. If your child is older, you can increase and learning time, and their frequency.
individual, when the teacher engaged in one-on-one with the child;
group: one or two teachers work with a group of children;
individual sessions with the mother and her newborn baby (usually required if the baby is lagging behind or he has health problems);
“mom + baby”: the classes are held in the group of children with their parents.
Before school child needs to sleep well and eat.
Marina, 1.8 years. The first time was constantly crying and refused to do anything. It turned out that the classes partially overlap with the second dream. The girl woke early, not to late to start the lesson. When I changed the classroom, Marina gladly became involved and now she is in a hurry to class.
As we have said, schools of early development usually have a variety of educational material. To buy a home such a large amount of benefits does not make sense. First, it is expensive; secondly, it takes a lot of space; and, perhaps most importantly, they are designed for a large number of children, depending on age, interest and level of development.
Studies carried out in such groups, tailored specifically for children of a certain age. Most of the lessons of play. Because children new knowledge is best perceived through the game. Very well, if classes will contain different types of exercises: intellectual, musical, artistic, physical, etc. the Kids still can’t focus on one lesson, and they need a change of activities. The best option is to alternate exercises that requires perseverance and attention, with active movements. For example, when intellectual pursuits or physical activities and training is a small dance warm-up.
Attending classes in the group of early development, the child acquires new knowledge. As we have said, up to 6-7 years, the process of education is given, it is easy, rewarding and doesn’t require additional motivation. But being a student of the school, the child does not simply acquire new knowledge, he learns to study. The child learns to set goals — albeit small, but such necessary (for example to put another cube, draw a circle or simply to clean up paint), to think logically and make their first conclusions. It trains memory, develops small and large motor skills, gradually, day by day, increases the concentration of attention. And another very important point: a child learns to be independent.
A very important factor in favor of the schools of early development — social. Children from a very early age learn to communicate and build relations with “strangers” adults, asking for help to solve conflicts and just be friends. After all, what is the world of little house is essentially a world of adults. Those around the little man — moms, dads, grandparents, uncles and aunts, who love him very much and ready to do everything for him. And these adults are making for the baby most of the decisions. And even if somewhere on the Playground there is a conflict situation between children or controversial, then decide it is usually too adults. And getting into an environment where many children, the child learns to do it himself. And indeed the art of communication we learn all life, and the sooner our child will begin to understand this difficult science, the easier it will be later. And one more pleasant moment: new friends are not only children but also their parents.
Veronika, 23 years. “When Paula was born, we moved to another area where I knew no one, and with friends at work talked less and less: they have the balance sheet and quarterly report, I have the first steps of my daughter and her first words… When Pauline was a year old, we went to school “mom + baby”, where he was the mom with kids from 1 year to 3 years. And there I met people who have the same interests as me, and who care about the same issues as me… it Was nice to discuss together, as children grow, what to feed or what to treat and where you can go…”
Perhaps one of the most significant deficiencies of the schools of early development is their cost. Unfortunately, very few of these schools are funded by the state or receive material support from the municipality, and, as a rule, they are self-sufficient. Expensive rent, purchase of material, wages of teachers and other expenses borne by the parents. And so often the cost of such training is sufficiently high.
Young children are still poorly developed immunity to infectious disease. And if someone is ill or not recovered, the greater the likelihood that contagious and the other kids. Therefore, the first year the children are often sick. But gradually the body’s resistance to these viruses increases, which reduces the probability of subsequent disease.
Not always the school is close to home. And then the question arises: how to get there? Long road for a kid — a big test, and the difference between car and public transport for a child is enormous. And if in September you can enjoy a pleasant walk, think, how will you get in the winter. Remember doctors ‘ recommendations: the maximum travel time should not exceed 20 minutes.
When children go in one group, mothers involuntarily begin to compare the progress of children. In the result of experiencing themselves (because there is always someone who has succeeded more than your child). But it is especially bad when parents start to point it to the baby, thus making the first steps to the emergence of the child’s inferiority complex. It is important to remember that early development is when your baby does something better than another child, and when he does better than himself! Ie, compared to how he would have been if it did.
Unfortunately, some parents think that attendance at nursery is more than enough, thus completely shifting the responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child to the teacher. It is fundamentally wrong, no supersonically school of early development will not replace your interactions with your child! Reading books, fascinating walks, talks, playing sports, but just playing together — all this also affects the formation of personality of the baby.
Now you know quite a large number of original programs and techniques. But if we talk about schools of early development, the most widespread methods of M. Montessori and benefits N. A. Zaitsev.
Founder: Rudolf Steiner, German philosopher and esoteric, the developer direction of anthroposophy. The first Waldorf school opened in Germany in 1919 for children of workers of firm “the Waldorf Astoria” (hence the name of the pedagogy).
Main provisions: Waldorf pedagogy is initially focused on the personality of the child consists in developing his natural abilities. Waldorfy believe that childhood is a perfect age which we must try to extend. Therefore, the emphasis is on the development of artistic, musical and theatrical abilities. Training is largely built on the principle of imitation and repetition after the teacher. Great importance is attached to the emotional state of the child. But the early development of intelligence is invalid, i.e. learning to read and write begins very late. In a Waldorf kindergarten pay great attention to manual labour: all children learn to sew, to cook, to cut wood, work on pottery wheel and even grow vegetables. Toys here is unusual: most of them made by the hands of children or represent objects from natural materials, usually unpainted wood or clay, because it develops imagination and creative abilities of the baby. Often in such groups has a petting area where children learn to take care of our smaller brethren. In Waldorf kindergartens is constantly hosts festivals and theatrical performances are staged.
Agegroups in the kindergarten is not divided into single ages, and represent a mixed, uneven-aged group of 3 to 6 years. In an earlier age to give a child in kindergarten is not recommended.
Classes: sculpture, drawing, cooking, music (most often it is a flute or traditional instruments), eurythmy (movement to music), theatre, etc.
Founder: Maria Montessori, Italian educator; one of the first women who received a doctorate of medicine; Professor of anthropology and hygiene in women’s Higher school. Initially, its classes were designed for children, lagged in development. But the results achieved by boys, was so stunning that there is a reasonable question: what will happen to ordinary children, if they conduct similar sessions. And after some time was opened the first kindergarten for ordinary guys.
Main provisions: the main principle of the Montessori groups — “help me do it myself”, i.e. the initiative for any action must come from the child, and the teacher only helps and guides the child. After all, if we constantly will do everything for the children (to feed with a spoon, tie a shoelace, etc.), then they’d never learn. To do this, Montessori teachers have developed a huge amount of educational material. All the benefits of beautiful, interesting and pleasant to the touch. They are arranged from simple to complex, from the concrete to the abstract and are always available to children. Thus, baby chooses when and what to do, how much time and the guys will cooperate. M. Montessori has proved that in every child lies the need to develop, so he will strive for new knowledge. A stimulating environment will help him in this. Even Maria Montessori drew attention, and modern psychology has confirmed that each child experiences sensitive periods, i.e. those moments in your life when it is most easily and naturally learns certain things (for example, the most favorable period for learning to read from 3 to 5.5 years; a sensitive period in the perception of order lasts from 2 to 4 years). And if we consider these features of children’s development, the training will take place easily.
Age: there are classes in groups of “mom + baby”, which is visited by parents with children from 1 year to 3 years. And the guys with 3 to 6 years are already studying in groups of their own.
Classes: each Montessori group specifically arranged learning environment. By using benefits, you can learn many things: to pour water from the pitcher into the cups, pour a spoonful of cereal, read, write, and explore Pets and seasons. All material is divided into five areas: practical life; sensorial activities (developing the senses); mathematics; Russian language; space (knowledge about the world). In order that the child can correctly work with the new textbook, the teacher gives the presentation of the material, i.e. shows and, if necessary, explains what and how to do it. All Montessori material is designed so that the child can control her error. The teacher there is no need to point out the shortcomings in the work of the crumbs, thus the child does not have a sense of fear, if he did something wrong, and he is confident in his abilities.
Founder: Nikolai Zaitsev — a teacher of Russian and English languages, academician of the Academy of creative pedagogy, the author of new directions in methods of teaching reading, math and grammar.
Main provisions: N. A. Zaitsev developed a method for teaching reading with sounding blocks. The technique is based on the principle warehouse reading. Adults together with children or children themselves sing the warehouses written in tables or measured on the sides of cubes, which differ in color, size and sound (inside the cubes are different objects that make sounds). Playing with these blocks, children learn to make simple words, write the names of objects; with pointers do it on the tables. And soon begins to read the inscriptions on the street, the names of magazines and even their first books.
Benefits Zaitseva a good combination of clarity and systematic approach, they are specific and comprehensive at the same time. But his method is not only learning to read, he also developed materials to teach numbers, there is also a “Favorite pictures”, “Road signs”, “Read and sing” (learning to read through singing), “Thousand +” (teaching mathematical operations, working with the square of the number), “Write beautifully” (teaching calligraphy).
Age: to start classes on cubes Zaitsev is possible at any age. But if we are talking about group lessons, the best age — 4-5 years. On the one hand, kids have already grown up, they are drawn to other guys, it is easier for them to adapt to the new environment, and on the other, the children already know, what book, they understand why you need to learn to read, and are happy to accept “rules of the game”. Therefore, at this age, learning takes place most rapidly and easily.
Very often teachers in the schools of early development have several methods and apply them in direct training of children.
How are educational classes
Classes in schools early development is conducted in groups. As a rule, small groups — 8-10 people, which allows you to pay attention to each kid and get him an individual approach. Class time is from 20 minutes to hours — depends on age of children and school programs. Most classes in schools early development is in the form of the game and includes various types of activity that quickly follow each other, which makes the lesson more effective and interesting.
The lesson can be included:
Finger gymnastics and articulation of the game: using the handprints of children “puff” ball or pointing fingers, as Bunny wiggles his ears, what of the hedgehog needles, or “bake” cakes for your favorite mom. And all this combined with a small fun rhymes, which make the classes exciting, emotional game.
Sessions aimed at speech developmentinclude listening to stories, poems and nursery rhymes, making up stories for the pictures, inventing stories on a given topic, guessing riddles, answers to questions and word games.
Music lessons: together with the teacher the children learn fun songs, play traditional instruments (wooden spoons, tambourines, rattles, etc.).
Rhythm: is a system of physical exercises to music to develop a sense of rhythm.
Exercise: not only strengthen the health of your baby, but also will ensure proper physical development, extend the functionality of the developing organism, will teach him to navigate in space, to coordinate movement and to keep the balance, and will also help in the prevention of colds. Most physical exercises are accompanied by fun poems and poteshkami. In the classroom you can use rattles, sports track, toys, educational rugs, large and small balls, hoops and other sports equipment.
Educational games: a framework Montessori and Nikitin games, various types of bingo and a large number of other educational games and exercises aimed at the formation of the intellectual activity of the baby.
Basic mathematics: here the kids will learn numbers; learn the simple geometric shapes; disassemble such thing as a “one — many”, “more — less — same”, “plus — minus — equals”, etc.
Learning to read: the first acquaintance with the alphabet, playing with letters, of clay, the song of the Alphabet, audio tracks and hide-and-seek with syllables — all of which help to make the first steps into the world of reading.
Drawing: in the classroom the child will learn to draw with their fingers, a brush, a sponge; to make color spray; will know how to press the pencil to line turned thick or thin; you will see what the patterns turn out on a wet sheet, etc.
Modeling: develop fingers using plasticine, clay, warm wax and salt dough.
Knowledge about the world: children become familiar with wild and domestic animals, learn what types of transportation than the vegetables and fruits differ from what appears in summer. Guys in each class will be doing for yourself small discoveries about our world.
Psychological game will help children learn to make friends, to interact with each other, ask for help or advice; will teach kids to manage their emotions and overcome fears, to care about animals and to respect their elders and to distinguish between good and bad. The work can be used cards, pictures, posters. This includes therapy, psychological theatre, and various role-playing games and exercises.
Creative activity develops imagination and fantasy of children when working with natural materials (acorns, pine cones, chestnuts, leaves etc.). On the lessons the kids learn to do applique edging (using scissors), breakage (tear the paper into small pieces), three-dimensional; designing paper by folding, multiple folding or adhesive.